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Title:
Power distribution planning reference book / H. Lee Willis.
Author:
Willis, H. Lee, 1949-
Published:
New York : M. Dekker, c2004.
Edition:
2nd ed., rev. and expanded.
Description:
xix, 1,217 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Series:
Power engineering ; 23.
Notes:
Also available online.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN:
0824748751 (alk. paper)

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Reference Book TK3091.W734 2004
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Summary

Summary

Providing more than twice the content of the original edition, this new edition is the premier source on the selection, development, and provision of safe, high-quality, and cost-effective electric utility distribution systems, and it promises vast improvements in system reliability and layout by spanning every aspect of system planning including load forecasting, scheduling, performance, and economics. Responding to the evolving needs of electric utilities, Power Distribution Planning Reference Book presents an abundance of real-world examples, procedural and managerial issues, and engineering and analytical methodologies that are crucial to efficient and enhanced system performance.


Author Notes

H. Lee Willis is Vice President and Chief Engineer, ABB Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina


Table of Contents

Series Introductionp. iii
Prefacep. iv
1 Power Delivery Systemsp. 1
1.1 Introductionp. 1
1.2 T&D System's Missionp. 2
1.3 Reliability of Power Deliveryp. 3
1.4 The "Natural Laws of T&D"p. 6
1.5 Levels of the T&D Systemp. 8
1.6 Utility Distribution Equipmentp. 16
1.7 T&D Costsp. 21
1.8 Types of Distribution System Designp. 29
1.9 The Systems Approach and Two-Q Planningp. 35
1.10 Summary of Key Pointsp. 41
References and Bibliographyp. 45
2 Consumer Demand and Electric Loadp. 47
2.1 The Two Qs: Quantity and Quality of Powerp. 47
2.2 Quantity of Power Demand: Electric Loadp. 49
2.3 Electric Consumer Demand for Quality of Powerp. 59
2.4 The Market Comb and Consumer Valuesp. 75
2.5 Two-Q Analysis: Quantity and Quality Versus Costp. 78
2.6 Conclusion and Summaryp. 82
Referencesp. 84
3 Electric Load, Coincidence, and Behaviorp. 85
3.1 Introductionp. 85
3.2 Peak Load, Diversity, and Load Curve Behaviorp. 85
3.3 Measuring and Modeling Load Curvesp. 94
3.4 Summaryp. 102
Referencesp. 102
4 Power System Reliabilityp. 103
4.1 Introductionp. 103
4.2 Outages Cause Interruptionsp. 107
4.3 Reliability Indicesp. 111
4.4 Comparison of Reliability Indices Among Utilitiesp. 117
4.5 Benchmarking Reliabilityp. 120
4.6 Conclusion and Summaryp. 131
References and Further Readingp. 133
5 Economics and Evaluation of Costp. 135
5.1 Introductionp. 135
5.2 Costsp. 136
5.3 Time Value of Moneyp. 141
5.4 Variability of Costsp. 158
5.5 Conclusionp. 163
Referencesp. 165
6 Evaluation, Prioritization, and Approvalp. 167
6.1 Decisions and Commitmentsp. 167
6.2 Evaluation, Comparison, Prioritization, and Approvalp. 167
6.3 Traditional Regulated Utility Least-Cost Planningp. 178
6.4 The Benefit/Cost Ratio Paradigmp. 185
6.5 Incremental Benefit/Cost Evaluationp. 195
6.6 Profit-Based Planning Paradigmsp. 219
6.7 Summary, Comments, and Conclusionp. 221
References and Bibliographyp. 230
7 Equipment Ratings, Loadings, Lifetime, and Failurep. 231
7.1 Introductionp. 231
7.2 Capacity Ratings and Lifetimep. 232
7.3 Aging, Deterioration, and Damagep. 246
7.4 Measures to Improve Equipment Reliability and Lifep. 259
7.5 Conclusion and Summaryp. 263
For Further Readingp. 266
8 Equipment Failures and System Performancep. 267
8.1 Introductionp. 267
8.2 Equipment Failure Rate Increases with Agep. 267
8.3 A Look at Failure and Age in a Utility Systemp. 274
8.4 Conclusion and Summaryp. 282
Referencesp. 282
9 Load Reach and Volt-VAR Engineeringp. 283
9.1 Introductionp. 283
9.2 Voltage Behavior on a Distribution Systemp. 285
9.3 Load Reach and Distribution Capabilityp. 291
9.4 Load Reach, the Systems Approach, and Current and Voltage Performance Optimizationp. 298
9.5 Managing Voltage Drop on Distribution Systemsp. 301
9.6 Volt-VAR Control and Correctionp. 310
9.7 Summary of Key Pointsp. 328
Referencesp. 330
10 Distributed Resourcesp. 331
10.1 Managing Two-Q Demand on the Consumer Sidep. 331
10.2 Energy and Demand Management Methodsp. 332
10.3 Conservation Voltage Reductionp. 356
10.4 Distributed Generationp. 363
10.5 Electric Energy Storage Systemsp. 373
10.6 Distributed Resource Cost Evaluationp. 378
10.7 Summaryp. 387
Bibliographyp. 387
11 Basic Line Segment and Transformer Sizing Economicsp. 389
11.1 Introductionp. 389
11.2 Distribution Linesp. 389
11.3 Transformersp. 399
11.4 Basic Equipment Selection Economicsp. 407
11.5 Conclusionp. 418
References and Bibliographyp. 418
12 Choosing the Right Set of Line and Equipment Sizesp. 419
12.1 Introductionp. 419
12.2 Using Economic Loading and Voltage Drop Wellp. 423
12.3 Economy and Performance of a Conductor Setp. 428
12.4 Conductor Set Design: Fundamental Aspectsp. 436
12.5 Recommended Method for Conductor Set Designp. 443
12.6 Standard Transformer Setsp. 446
12.7 Conclusionp. 448
References and Bibliographyp. 448
13 Distribution Feeder Layoutp. 449
13.1 Introductionp. 449
13.2 The Feeder Systemp. 449
13.3 Radial and Loop Feeder Layoutp. 465
13.4 Dual-Voltage Feedersp. 470
13.5 Summary of Key Pointsp. 476
Referencesp. 476
14 Feeder Layout, Switching, and Reliabilityp. 477
14.1 Introductionp. 477
14.2 Designing Reliability into the Primary Feeder (MV) Levelp. 486
14.3 Feeder System Strengthp. 494
14.4 Contingency-Based Versus Reliability-Based Planningp. 497
14.5 Contingency Support and Switching Designp. 505
14.6 Protection and Sectionalization of the Feeder Systemp. 523
14.7 Summary of Key Pointsp. 550
References and Bibliographyp. 550
15 Multi-Feeder Layoutp. 553
15.1 Introductionp. 553
15.2 How Many Feeders in a Substation Service Area?p. 554
15.3 Planning the Feeder Systemp. 558
15.4 Planning for Load Growthp. 564
15.5 Formulae for Estimating Feeder System Costp. 570
15.6 Conclusion and Summaryp. 574
Referencesp. 577
16 Distribution Substationsp. 579
16.1 Introductionp. 579
16.2 High-Side Substation Equipment and Layoutp. 581
16.3 Transformer Portion of a Substationp. 591
16.4 Low-Side Portion of a Substationp. 598
16.5 The Substation Sitep. 602
16.6 Substation Costs, Capacity, and Reliabilityp. 604
16.7 Substation Standardizationp. 606
16.8 Substation Planning and the Concept of "Transformer Units"p. 610
16.9 Conclusion and Summaryp. 613
References and Bibliographyp. 613
17 Distribution System Layoutp. 615
17.1 Introductionp. 615
17.2 The T&D System in Its Entiretyp. 615
17.3 Design Interrelationshipsp. 625
17.4 Example of a System Dominated by Voltage Drop, Not Capacityp. 651
17.5 Conclusion and Summaryp. 659
References and Bibliographyp. 659
18 Substation Siting and System Expansion Planningp. 661
18.1 Introductionp. 661
18.2 Substation Location, Capacity, and Service Areap. 661
18.3 Substation Siting and Sizing Economicsp. 666
18.4 Substation-Level Planning: The Artp. 682
18.5 Guidelines to Achieve Low Cost in Substation Siting and Sizingp. 685
18.6 Substation-Level Planning: The Sciencep. 689
18.7 Planning with Modular Substationsp. 698
18.8 Summary: The Most Important Point About Substation-Level Planningp. 703
References and Bibliographyp. 703
19 Service Level Layout and Planningp. 705
19.1 Introductionp. 705
19.2 The Service Levelp. 705
19.3 Types of Service Level Layoutp. 706
19.4 Load Dynamics, Coincidence, and Their Interaction with the Service Levelp. 711
19.5 Service-Level Planning and Layoutp. 716
19.6 High Reliability Service-Level Systemsp. 725
19.7 Conclusionp. 733
Referencesp. 733
20 Planning Goals and Criteriap. 735
20.1 Introductionp. 735
20.2 Voltage and Customer Service Criteria and Guidelinesp. 737
20.3 Other Distribution Design and Operating Guidelinesp. 749
20.4 Load Ratings and Loading Guidelinesp. 751
20.5 Equipment and Design Criteriap. 752
20.6 Summary of Key Pointsp. 756
References and Bibliographyp. 756
21 Reliability-Related Criteria and Their Usep. 757
21.1 Introductionp. 757
21.2 Reliability Metrics, Targets, and Criteriap. 761
21.3 Practical Issues of Reliability-Based Criteriap. 772
21.4 Approaches and Criteria for Targeted Reliability Planningp. 775
21.5 Summary of Key Pointsp. 783
References and Bibliographyp. 783
22 Distribution Circuit Electrical Analysisp. 785
22.1 Introductionp. 785
22.2 Models, Algorithms, and Computer Programsp. 787
22.3 Circuit Modelsp. 790
22.4 Models of Electric Loadp. 798
22.5 Types of Electrical Behavior System Modelsp. 803
22.6 Coincidence and Load Flow Interactionp. 810
22.7 Conclusion and Summaryp. 817
References and Bibliographyp. 818
23 Distribution System Reliability Analysis Methodsp. 819
23.1 Introductionp. 819
23.2 Contingency-Based Planning Methodsp. 823
23.3 Engineering Reliability Directlyp. 844
23.4 Analytical Distribution System Reliability Assessmentp. 848
23.5 Important Aspects of Reliability Assessmentp. 851
23.6 Reliability Simulation Studies and Financial Risk Assessmentp. 857
23.7 Conclusion and Key Pointsp. 863
References and Bibliographyp. 865
24 Automated Planning Tools and Methodsp. 869
24.1 Introductionp. 869
24.2 Fast Ways to Find Good Alternativesp. 870
24.3 Automated Feeder Planning Methodsp. 881
24.4 Substation-Level and Strategic Planning Toolsp. 892
24.5 Application of Planning Toolsp. 900
24.6 Conclusion and Summaryp. 904
References and Bibliographyp. 907
25 T&D Load Forecasting Methodsp. 909
25.1 Spatial Load Forecastingp. 909
25.2 Load Growth Behaviorp. 911
25.3 Important Elements of a Spatial Forecastp. 916
25.4 Trending Methodsp. 923
25.5 Simulation Methods for Spatial Load Forecastingp. 939
25.6 Hybrid Trending-Simulation Methodsp. 954
25.7 Conclusion and Summary of Key Pointsp. 961
References and Bibliographyp. 963
26 Planning and the T&D Planning Processp. 967
26.1 Introductionp. 967
26.2 Goals, Priorities, and Directionp. 968
26.3 Tactical Planning: Finding the Best Alternativep. 978
26.4 Short- Versus Long-Range Planningp. 987
26.5 Uncertainty and Multi-Scenario Planningp. 992
26.6 The Power Delivery Planning Processp. 995
26.7 Summary and Key Pointsp. 1008
References and Bibliographyp. 1015
27 Practical Aspects of T&D Load Forecastingp. 1017
27.1 The First Step in T&D Planningp. 1017
27.2 Weather Normalization and Design Criteriap. 1018
27.3 Selection of a Forecast Methodp. 1030
27.4 Application of Spatial Forecast Methodsp. 1039
27.5 Conclusion and Summaryp. 1052
Bibliography and Referencesp. 1054
28 Balancing Reliability and Spendingp. 1055
28.1 Introductionp. 1055
28.2 The Fundamental Conceptsp. 1058
28.3 Optimizing Reliability Cost Effectivenessp. 1063
28.4 CERI--A Practical Method to "Bootstrap" Reliability Improvementp. 1078
28.5 Required Tools and Resources for Reliability Planningp. 1102
28.6 "Equitableness" Issues in Reliability Optimizationp. 1106
28.7 Approaches to Setting and Planning Reliability Targetsp. 1113
28.8 Asset Managementp. 1117
28.9 Conclusion and Summaryp. 1122
References and Bibliographyp. 1124
29 Objectivity, Bias, and Accuracy in Planningp. 1127
29.1 Introduction and Purpose of this Chapterp. 1127
29.2 Objective Evaluation, Proponent Study, or Simply Poor Work?p. 1129
29.3 Ways that Bias Makes Its Way into a T&D Planning Studyp. 1132
29.4 The "Rules" Used to Bias Planning Studies in an Unseen Mannerp. 1135
29.5 Areas Where Bias or Mistakes Are Often Introduced into a Studyp. 1140
29.6 Examples of Bogus, Proponent, and Masked Studiesp. 1148
29.7 Guidelines for Detecting, Finding, and Evaluating Biasp. 1159
29.8 Summary and Conclusion: Forewarned is Forearmedp. 1184
Referencesp. 1188
30 Key Points, Guidelines, Recommendationsp. 1189
30.1 Introductionp. 1189
30.2 On Distribution Systemsp. 1189
30.3 On Utilities and Utility Practicesp. 1193
30.4 On Planning Wellp. 1199
Referencesp. 1206
Indexp. 1207