Cover image for
Organizational culture and leadership / Edgar H. Schein ; with Peter Schein.
Schein, Edgar H., author.
Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley and Sons, Inc., [2017]
5th edition.
xxiv, 384 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Includes bibliographical references (pages 355-365) and index.
Other Authors:
Schein, Peter, author.



Material Type
Call Number
Book HD58.7.S319 2017

On Order



The book that defined the field, updated and expanded for today's organizations

Organizational Culture and Leadership is the classic reference for managers and students seeking a deeper understanding of the inter-relationship of organizational culture dynamics and leadership. Author Edgar Schein is the 'father' of organizational culture, world-renowned for his expertise and research in the field; in this book, he analyzes and illustrates through cases the abstract concept of culture and shows its importance to the management of organizational change. This new fifth edition shows how culture has become a popular concept leading to a wide variety of research and implementation by various organizations and expands the focus on the role of national cultures in influencing culture dynamics, including some practical concepts for how to deal with international differences.

Special emphasis is given to how the role of leadership varies with the age of the organization from founding, through mid-life to old age as the cultural issues vary at each stage. How culture change is managed at each stage and in different types of organizations is emphasized as a central concern of leader behavior..

This landmark book is considered the defining resource in the field. Drawing on a wide range of research, this fifth edition contains 25 percent new and revised material to provide the most relevant new concepts and perspectives alongside the basic culture model that has helped to define the field.

Dig into assumptions and typologies to decipher organizational culture

Learn how culture begins, thrives, or dies with leadership Manage cultural change effectively and appropriately Understand the leader's role in managing disparate groups

The resurgence of interest in organizational culture has spurred an awakening in research, and new information is continuously coming to light. Outdated practices are being replaced by more effective methods, and the resulting shift affects organizations everywhere. Organizational Culture and Leadership is an essential resource for scholars, consultants and leaders seeking continuous improvement in the face of today's business realities.

Author Notes

Edgar M. Schein is the Society of Sloan Fellows Professor of Management Emeritus and a professor emeritus at the MIT Sloan School Management. A world-renowned expert on organizational culture credited with founding the field, he is the bestselling author of Humble Inquiry, Helping, and Humble Consulting.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. ix
Prefacep. xiii
Forewordp. xv
About the Authorsp. xxiii
Part 1 Defining the Structure of Culture
1 How to Define Culture in Generalp. 3
The Problem of Denning Culture Clearlyp. 3
Summary and Conclusionsp. 14
Suggestions for Readersp. 16
2 The Structure of Culturep. 17
Three Levels of Analysisp. 17
Summary and Conclusionsp. 29
Suggestions for Readersp. 30
3 A Young and Growing U.S. Engineering Organizationp. 31
Case 1: Digital Equipment Corporation in Maynard, Massachusettsp. 31
Summary and Conclusionsp. 42
Suggestions for Readersp. 43
4 A Mature Swiss-German Chemical Organizationp. 45
Case 2: Ciba-Geigy Company in Basel, Switzerlandp. 45
Can Organizational Cultures Be Stronger than National Cultures?p. 55
Summary and Conclusionsp. 56
Questions for Readersp. 59
5 A Developmental Government Organization in Singaporep. 61
Case 3: Singapore's Economic Development Boardp. 61
The EDB Nested Cultural Paradigmsp. 63
Summary and Conclusions: The Multiple Implications of the Three Casesp. 73
Questions for Readersp. 75
Part 2 What Leaders Need to Know about Macro Cultures
6 Dimensions of the Macro-Cultural Contextp. 81
Travel and Literaturep. 81
Survey Researchp. 82
Ethnographic, Observational, and Interview-Based Researchp. 86
Human Essence and Basic Motivationp. 96
Summary and Conclusionsp. 102
Questions for Readersp. 104
7 A Focused Way of Working with Macro Culturesp. 105
Cultural Intelligencep. 107
How to Foster Cross-Cultural Learningp. 109
The Paradox of Macro Culture Understandingp. 117
Echelons as Macro Culturesp. 118
Summary and Conclusionsp. 121
Suggestion for the Change Leader: Do Some Experiments with Dialoguep. 122
Suggestion for the Recruitp. 123
Suggestion for the Scholar or Researcherp. 123
Suggestion for the Consultant or Helperp. 123
Part 3 Culture and Leadership through Stages of Growth
8 How Culture Begins and the Role of the Founder of Organizationsp. 127
A Model of How Culture Forms in New Groupsp. 127
The Role of the Founder in the Creation of Culturesp. 130
Example 1 Ken Olsen and DEC Revisitedp. 132
Example 2 Sam Steinberg and Sternberg's of Canadap. 136
Example 3 Fred Smithfleld, a "Serial Entrepreneur"p. 140
Example 4 Steve Jobs and Applep. 142
Example 5 IBM-Thomas Watson Sr. and His Sonp. 144
Example 6 Hewlett and Packardp. 144
Summary and Conclusionsp. 146
Suggestions for Readersp. 147
Implications for Founders and Leadersp. 147
9 How External Adaptation and Internal Integration Become Culturep. 149
The Socio-Technical Issues of Organizational Growth and Evolutionp. 150
Issues around the Means: Structure, Systems, and Processesp. 158
Summary and Conclusionsp. 178
Suggestion for the Culture Analystp. 179
Suggestion for the Manager and Leaderp. 179
10 How Leaders Embed and Transmit Culturep. 181
Primary Embedding Mechanismsp. 183
Secondary Reinforcement and Stabilizing Mechanismsp. 196
Summary and Conclusionsp. 204
Questions for Researchers, Students, and Employeesp. 206
11 The Culture Dynamics of Organizational Growth, Maturity, and Declinep. 207
General Effects of Success, Growth, and Agep. 208
Differentiation and the Growth of Subculturesp. 211
The Need for Alignment between Three Generic Subcultures: Operators, Designers, and Executivesp. 221
The Unique Role of the Executive Function: Subculture Managementp. 229
Summary and Conclusionsp. 229
Suggestions for the Readerp. 231
12 Natural and Guided Cultural Evolutionp. 233
Founding and Early Growthp. 234
Transition to Midlife: Problems of Successionp. 237
Organizational Maturity and Potential Declinep. 245
Summary and Conclusionsp. 250
Questions for Readersp. 251
Part 4 Assessing Culture and Leading Planned Change
13 Deciphering Culturep. 255
Why Decipher Culture?p. 255
How Valid Are Clinically Gathered Data?p. 262
Ethical Issues in Deciphering Culturep. 263
Professional Obligations of the Culture Analystp. 266
Summary and Conclusionsp. 267
Questions for the Readerp. 269
14 The Diagnostic Quantitative Approach to Assessment and Planned Changep. 271
Why Use Typologies, and Why Not?p. 272
Typologies that Focus on Assumptions about Authority and Intimacyp. 278
Typologies of Corporate Character and Culturep. 281
Examples of Survey-Based Profiles of Culturesp. 285
Automated Culture Analysis with Software-as-a-Servicep. 288
Summary and Conclusionsp. 293
Suggestions for the Readerp. 295
15 The Dialogic Qualitative Culture Assessment Processp. 297
Case 4 MA-COM-Revising a Change Agenda as a Result of Cultural Insightp. 298
Case 5 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Reassessing Their Missionp. 302
Case 6 Apple Assessing Its Culture as Part of a Long-Range Planning Processp. 307
Case 7 SAAB COMB1TECH-Building Collaboration in Research Unitsp. 311
Case 8 Using A Priori Criteria for Culture Evaluationp. 313
What of DEC, Ciba-Geigy, and Singapore? Did Their Cultures Evolve and Change?p. 314
Summary and Conclusionsp. 315
Suggestion for the Readerp. 317
16 A Model of Change Management and the Change Leaderp. 319
The Change Leader Needs Help in Defining the Change Problem or Goalp. 320
General Change Theoryp. 321
Why Change? Where Is the Pain?p. 322
The Stages and Steps of Change Managementp. 323
Cautions in Regard to "Culture" Changep. 337
Summary and Conclusionsp. 339
Suggestions for Readersp. 341
17 The Change Leader as Learnerp. 343
What Might a Learning Culture Look Like?p. 344
Why These Dimensions?p. 349
Learning-Oriented Leadershipp. 350
A Final Thought: Discover the Culture within My Own Personalityp. 354
Referencesp. 355
Indexp. 367