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### Summary

### Summary

Synthesizing the literature from the survey and measurement fields, this book explains how to develop closed-response survey scales that will accurately capture such constructs as attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors. It provides guidelines to help applied researchers or graduate students review existing scales for possible adoption or adaptation in a study; create their own conceptual framework for a scale; write checklists, true-false variations, and Likert-style items; design response scales; examine validity and reliability; conduct a factor analysis; and document the instrument development and its technical quality. Advice is given on constructing tables and graphs to report survey scale results. Concepts and procedures are illustrated with "Not This/But This" examples from multiple disciplines.

User-Friendly Features

*End-of-chapter exercises with sample solutions, plus annotated suggestions for further reading.

*"Not This/But This" examples of poorly written and strong survey items.

*Chapter-opening overviews and within-chapter summaries.

*Glossary of key concepts.

*Appendix with examples of parametric and nonparametric procedures for group comparisons.

### Author Notes

Robert I. Johnson is Professor in the Department of Educational Studies at the University of South Carolina. Grant B. Morgan is Associate Professor in the Department of Educational Psychology at Baylor University.

### Table of Contents

1 Scales in Surveys | p. 1 |

Introduction | p. 1 |

Closed-Response Items | p. 2 |

Open-Response items | p. 2 |

An Overview of the Survey Scale Development Process | p. 5 |

Establish the Purpose of a Survey | p. 5 |

Define the Construct | p. 6 |

Review Potential Instruments | p. 9 |

Write Items and Response Scales | p. 9 |

Format Survey and Determine the Administration Method | p. 12 |

Submit the Survey Scale for Review | p. 12 |

Field Test the Instrument and Investigate Item and Scale Quality | p. 12 |

Document the Development of the Survey Scale | p. 13 |

Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviors | p. 13 |

Attitudes | p. 13 |

Knowledge | p. 14 |

Behaviors | p. 15 |

Key Qualities of a Survey Scale: Reliability and Validity | p. 15 |

Further Reading | p. 16 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 17 |

2 Adopting or Adapting an Existing Scale | p. 18 |

Introduction | p. 18 |

Reviewing Potential Instruments for Adoption or Adaptation | p. 18 |

Clarify the Instrument's Purpose | p. 19 |

Consider the Research Context | p. 19 |

Review Journal Articles and Critiques | p. 19 |

Request Copies of Instruments | p. 20 |

Summarize Strengths and Weaknesses | p. 20 |

Make a Decision about the Instrument | p. 21 |

The Mental Measurements Yearbook: A Source for Reviews of Instruments | p. 21 |

Test Entry | p. 24 |

Description | p. 28 |

Development | p. 29 |

Technical Qualities | p. 29 |

Reviewer Commentary | p. 29 |

Summary | p. 30 |

Plagiarism and Copyright Infringement | p. 30 |

Plagiarism | p. 30 |

Copyright Infringement | p. 31 |

Further Reading | p. 34 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 34 |

3 Establishing a Framework for the Development of a Survey Scale | p. 35 |

Introduction | p. 35 |

Model | p. 38 |

Narrative | p. 39 |

Elements and Format | p. 40 |

Functions of the Conceptual Framework in the Development of a Survey Scale | p. 41 |

Construction of a Conceptual Framework | p. 42 |

Review the Literature | p. 43 |

Construct a Model for the Framework | p. 43 |

Write the Narrative for the Framework | p. 44 |

Refine the Framework | p. 44 |

Further Reading | p. 45 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 45 |

4 Item-Writing Guidelines | p. 46 |

Introduction | p. 46 |

Addressing Relevance | p. 46 |

The Construct of Interest | p. 47 |

Logically Related to the Construct | p. 47 |

Multiple Items | p. 48 |

Crossover | p. 50 |

Concrete and Precise | p. 50 |

Item and Word Relevance | p. 50 |

Objectivity | p. 51 |

Addressing Audience | p. 51 |

Cognitive Skills and Communication | p. 51 |

Sufficient Information | p. 52 |

Recall of Information | p. 52 |

Representation of Diversity | p. 53 |

Addressing Language | p. 53 |

Language Understood by Respondents | p. 53 |

Current Language | p. 55 |

Multiple-Meaning Words | p. 55 |

Choices about Words | p. 55 |

Abstractions | p. 56 |

Reading Demands | p. 56 |

Addressing Item Structure | p. 57 |

Brevity | p. 57 |

Complete Sentences | p. 58 |

Single Idea | p. 58 |

Positive Wording | p. 59 |

Qualifying Phrases | p. 60 |

Eliminating Repetitive Phrasing | p. 60 |

Addressing Conventions | p. 60 |

Language Conventions | p. 60 |

Typographical Errors | p. 61 |

Guidelines Specific to Item Type | p. 62 |

Guidelines Specific to Knowledge-Based Items | p. 62 |

Guidelines for items about Behaviors | p. 65 |

Guidelines for items about Demographics (Personal Background) | p. 67 |

Number of Items | p. 68 |

Further Reading | p. 68 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 69 |

5 Development of Response Scales | p. 70 |

Introduction | p. 70 |

Length of the Item Response Scale | p. 71 |

Scale Length and Purpose | p. 71 |

Statistical Analyses to Be Used with Data | p. 74 |

Respondents' Discrimination Capability | p. 75 |

Respondent Preferences | p. 76 |

Numeric and Verbal Response Labels | p. 76 |

Numeric and Verbal Labels | p. 76 |

Labels for Response Categories | p. 77 |

Labels and the Purpose of the Scale | p. 77 |

Labels for Two Endpoints That Mean the Opposite of Each Other | p. 79 |

Positive Integers for Numeric Labels | p. 80 |

The Effect of Bias and Scale Extremes | p. 80 |

Labels to Reflect Equal Intervals along a Continuum | p. 81 |

Order of Response Scales: Negative to Positive | p. 82 |

Response Options in a Logical Order | p. 83 |

The Questionable Middle Position | p. 83 |

Even Number of Response Categories to Avoid Neutral Responses | p. 83 |

Odd Number of Response Categories for Quality or to Support the Status Quo | p. 84 |

Moderating Options When Using a Middle Option | p. 85 |

"Don't Know" and "No Opinion" | p. 85 |

DK and Unfamiliar Options | p. 86 |

Nonsubstantive Options Set Apart from the Other Response Options | p. 86 |

Further Reading | p. 88 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 89 |

6 Formatting and Reviewing | p. 90 |

Introduction | p. 90 |

Survey Format and Administration Method | p. 90 |

Cost | p. 92 |

Timeframe | p. 92 |

Number of Respondents | p. 92 |

Writing Demands | p. 92 |

Attractive Protocol | p. 92 |

Follow-Up on a Response | p. 92 |

Anonymity/Confidentiality | p. 93 |

Data Entry | p. 93 |

Item Formats Specific to Administration Methods | p. 93 |

Equal Spacing of the Response Options on Print and Web Surveys | p. 93 |

Each Item on Its Own Screen; Computer-Based Surveys | p. 95 |

Radio Buttons for Responding on Web-Based Surveys | p. 95 |

Horizontally Positioning Response Scales on Print and Web Surveys | p. 95 |

Color and the Continuum of the Response Scale | p. 95 |

Complete Reviews and a Pilot of the Survey Scale | p. 96 |

Subject Matter Expert Review | p. 96 |

Survey Methodologist Review | p. 96 |

Translator Review | p. 96 |

Editorial Review | p. 96 |

Bias Review | p. 97 |

Conducting a Pilot Test | p. 97 |

Further Reading | p. 98 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 98 |

7 Analysis of Survey Scale Data | p. 99 |

Introduction | p. 99 |

Levels of Measurement | p. 100 |

Nominal Data | p. 100 |

Ordinal Data | p. 101 |

Interval Data | p. 102 |

Ratio Data | p. 102 |

Frequencies | p. 103 |

Measures of Central Tendency | p. 104 |

Mode | p. 104 |

Median | p. 105 |

Mean | p. 105 |

Measures of Variability | p. 106 |

Range | p. 106 |

Variance | p. 106 |

Standard Deviation | p. 107 |

Measures of Association | p. 108 |

Scatterplots | p. 109 |

Pearson Correlation | p. 113 |

Spearman's Rho | p. 113 |

Obtaining Descriptive Statistics | p. 113 |

Item Statistics | p. 113 |

Inter-Item Correlations | p. 116 |

Further Reading | p. 117 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 118 |

Investigating Scale Quality | p. 120 |

Introduction | p. 120 |

Coverage Error | p. 120 |

Sampling Error | p. 120 |

Nonresponse Error | p. 121 |

Measurement Error | p. 121 |

Field Testing | p. 122 |

Response Distributions; Item Quality | p. 122 |

Frequencies | p. 122 |

Mean and Standard Deviation | p. 124 |

Total Score | p. 125 |

Corrected Item-Total Correlation | p. 126 |

Analyses by Group | p. 127 |

Analyses for Knowledge Items | p. 127 |

Investigating Reliability | p. 127 |

Internal Consistency Estimates of Reliability | p. 128 |

Coefficient of Stability | p. 129 |

Parallel Forms Reliability Estimates | p. 130 |

Evaluating Reliability Estimates | p. 130 |

Investigating Validity | p. 131 |

Forms of Validity Evidence | p. 131 |

Further Reading | p. 141 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 142 |

8 Factor Analysis | p. 143 |

Introduction | p. 143 |

General Purposes and Processes Associated with Factor-Analytic Procedures | p. 146 |

Testing Assumptions | p. 146 |

Dimensionality | p. 147 |

Unidimensionality | p. 147 |

Multidimensionality | p. 148 |

Extraction: Principal Axis Factoring | p. 149 |

Determining the Number of Factors (Model Selection) | p. 150 |

Eigenvalues | p. 150 |

Scree Plot | p. 152 |

Parallel Analysis | p. 153 |

Reproduced Residual Matrix | p. 154 |

Factor Loadings | p. 154 |

Rotation | p. 157 |

How to Interpret Factor Solutions | p. 162 |

Calculating Factor Scores | p. 163 |

Sample Size | p. 164 |

Steps after EFA | p. 165 |

How to Obtain an EFA Model | p. 165 |

Further Reading | p. 168 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 169 |

9 Documenting the Development of the Survey Scale | p. 171 |

Introduction | p. 171 |

Determining the Need for a Data Display | p. 172 |

Developing Tables | p. 174 |

Table Structure | p. 175 |

Organization of the Table | p. 176 |

Emphasis on the Most Important Pattern | p. 176 |

Placement of the Columns | p. 176 |

Use of Space | p. 177 |

Information to Include in a Table | p. 177 |

Consistent Format of Comparable Tables | p. 177 |

Table Data | p. 178 |

Presentation of Data in Columns | p. 178 |

The Order of Statistics | p. 180 |

Column and Row Overall Statistics | p. 180 |

Rounding to Two Place Values | p. 180 |

Reporting Statistics for Negatively Worded Items | p. 181 |

Developing Graphs | p. 181 |

Structure of a Graph | p. 182 |

Choice of a Bar Graph or a Line Graph | p. 182 |

x-Axis and y-Axis Labels | p. 183 |

Vertical and Horizontal Values for the Scale Axes | p. 183 |

Need for Gridlines | p. 184 |

Legends | p. 184 |

Number of Bars and Lines | p. 186 |

Shading | p. 186 |

Graphs to Avoid | p. 186 |

Organization of Data in a Graph | p. 187 |

Ordering Bars and Lines to Highlight Important Patterns | p. 187 |

Location of Statistics | p. 188 |

Narrative about Table or Graph | p. 188 |

Concluding Thoughts | p. 189 |

Further Reading | p. 189 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 190 |

Appendix. Analysis of Data: Inferential Statistics | p. 193 |

Introduction | p. 193 |

Sampling | p. 194 |

Inferential Statistics | p. 196 |

Hypothesis Testing | p. 196 |

Confidence Intervals | p. 198 |

Effect Size | p. 199 |

Inferential Procedures | p. 199 |

One-Sample f-Test | p. 200 |

Dependent-Samples f-Test | p. 205 |

Independent-Samples f-Test | p. 208 |

One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 212 |

Nonparametric Inferential Statistics | p. 216 |

Mann-Whitney U Test | p. 216 |

Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 219 |

Further Reading | p. 222 |

Appendix Exercises | p. 223 |

Glossary of Key Terms | p. 225 |

Sample Solutions to Chapter Exercises | p. 231 |

References | p. 243 |

Author Index | p. 255 |

Subject Index | p. 259 |

About the Authors | p. 269 |