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Title:
Survey scales : a guide to development, analysis, and reporting / Robert L. Johnson, Grant B. Morgan.
Author:
Johnson, Robert L. (Robert Lewis), 1958- author.
Published:
New York, NY : The Guilford Press, [2016]
Description:
xviii, 269 pages ; 24 cm
Summary:
"Synthesizing the literature from the survey and measurement fields, this book explains how to develop closed-response survey scales that will accurately capture such constructs as attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors. It provides guidelines to help applied researchers or graduate students review existing scales for possible adoption or adaptation in a study; create their own conceptual framework for a scale; write checklists, true-false variations, and Likert-style items; design response scales; examine validity and reliability; conduct a factor analysis; and document the instrument development and its technical quality. Advice is given on constructing tables and graphs to report survey scale results. Concepts and procedures are illustrated with "Not This/But This" examples from multiple disciplines. Pedagogical Features: *End-of-chapter exercises with sample solutions, plus annotated suggestions for further reading. *"Not This/But This" examples of poorly written and strong survey items. *Chapter-opening overviews and within-chapter summaries. *Glossary of key concepts. *Appendix with examples of parametric and nonparametric procedures for group comparisons"--

"Subject Areas/Keywords: assessment, design, instruments, item response scales, Likert scales, measurement, methodology, psychometrics, quantitative, research methods, scale development, survey scales, testing DESCRIPTION Synthesizing the literature from the survey and measurement fields, this book explains how to develop closed-response survey scales that will accurately capture such constructs as attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors. It provides guidelines to help applied researchers or graduate students review existing scales for possible adoption or adaptation in a study; create their own conceptual framework for a scale; write checklists, true-false variations, and Likert-style items; design response scales; examine validity and reliability; conduct a factor analysis; and document the instrument development and its technical quality. Advice is given on constructing tables and graphs to report survey scale results. Concepts and procedures are illustrated with "Not This/But This" examples from multiple disciplines"--
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
Other Authors:
Morgan, Grant B., author.
ISBN:
9781462526963 paperback

1462526969 paperback

9781462526970 hardcover

1462526977 hardcover

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Summary

Summary

Synthesizing the literature from the survey and measurement fields, this book explains how to develop closed-response survey scales that will accurately capture such constructs as attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors. It provides guidelines to help applied researchers or graduate students review existing scales for possible adoption or adaptation in a study; create their own conceptual framework for a scale; write checklists, true-false variations, and Likert-style items; design response scales; examine validity and reliability; conduct a factor analysis; and document the instrument development and its technical quality. Advice is given on constructing tables and graphs to report survey scale results. Concepts and procedures are illustrated with "Not This/But This" examples from multiple disciplines.

User-Friendly Features
*End-of-chapter exercises with sample solutions, plus annotated suggestions for further reading.
*"Not This/But This" examples of poorly written and strong survey items.
*Chapter-opening overviews and within-chapter summaries.
*Glossary of key concepts.
*Appendix with examples of parametric and nonparametric procedures for group comparisons.


Author Notes

Robert I. Johnson is Professor in the Department of Educational Studies at the University of South Carolina. Grant B. Morgan is Associate Professor in the Department of Educational Psychology at Baylor University.


Table of Contents

1 Scales in Surveysp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Closed-Response Itemsp. 2
Open-Response itemsp. 2
An Overview of the Survey Scale Development Processp. 5
Establish the Purpose of a Surveyp. 5
Define the Constructp. 6
Review Potential Instrumentsp. 9
Write Items and Response Scalesp. 9
Format Survey and Determine the Administration Methodp. 12
Submit the Survey Scale for Reviewp. 12
Field Test the Instrument and Investigate Item and Scale Qualityp. 12
Document the Development of the Survey Scalep. 13
Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviorsp. 13
Attitudesp. 13
Knowledgep. 14
Behaviorsp. 15
Key Qualities of a Survey Scale: Reliability and Validityp. 15
Further Readingp. 16
Chapter Exercisesp. 17
2 Adopting or Adapting an Existing Scalep. 18
Introductionp. 18
Reviewing Potential Instruments for Adoption or Adaptationp. 18
Clarify the Instrument's Purposep. 19
Consider the Research Contextp. 19
Review Journal Articles and Critiquesp. 19
Request Copies of Instrumentsp. 20
Summarize Strengths and Weaknessesp. 20
Make a Decision about the Instrumentp. 21
The Mental Measurements Yearbook: A Source for Reviews of Instrumentsp. 21
Test Entryp. 24
Descriptionp. 28
Developmentp. 29
Technical Qualitiesp. 29
Reviewer Commentaryp. 29
Summaryp. 30
Plagiarism and Copyright Infringementp. 30
Plagiarismp. 30
Copyright Infringementp. 31
Further Readingp. 34
Chapter Exercisesp. 34
3 Establishing a Framework for the Development of a Survey Scalep. 35
Introductionp. 35
Modelp. 38
Narrativep. 39
Elements and Formatp. 40
Functions of the Conceptual Framework in the Development of a Survey Scalep. 41
Construction of a Conceptual Frameworkp. 42
Review the Literaturep. 43
Construct a Model for the Frameworkp. 43
Write the Narrative for the Frameworkp. 44
Refine the Frameworkp. 44
Further Readingp. 45
Chapter Exercisesp. 45
4 Item-Writing Guidelinesp. 46
Introductionp. 46
Addressing Relevancep. 46
The Construct of Interestp. 47
Logically Related to the Constructp. 47
Multiple Itemsp. 48
Crossoverp. 50
Concrete and Precisep. 50
Item and Word Relevancep. 50
Objectivityp. 51
Addressing Audiencep. 51
Cognitive Skills and Communicationp. 51
Sufficient Informationp. 52
Recall of Informationp. 52
Representation of Diversityp. 53
Addressing Languagep. 53
Language Understood by Respondentsp. 53
Current Languagep. 55
Multiple-Meaning Wordsp. 55
Choices about Wordsp. 55
Abstractionsp. 56
Reading Demandsp. 56
Addressing Item Structurep. 57
Brevityp. 57
Complete Sentencesp. 58
Single Ideap. 58
Positive Wordingp. 59
Qualifying Phrasesp. 60
Eliminating Repetitive Phrasingp. 60
Addressing Conventionsp. 60
Language Conventionsp. 60
Typographical Errorsp. 61
Guidelines Specific to Item Typep. 62
Guidelines Specific to Knowledge-Based Itemsp. 62
Guidelines for items about Behaviorsp. 65
Guidelines for items about Demographics (Personal Background)p. 67
Number of Itemsp. 68
Further Readingp. 68
Chapter Exercisesp. 69
5 Development of Response Scalesp. 70
Introductionp. 70
Length of the Item Response Scalep. 71
Scale Length and Purposep. 71
Statistical Analyses to Be Used with Datap. 74
Respondents' Discrimination Capabilityp. 75
Respondent Preferencesp. 76
Numeric and Verbal Response Labelsp. 76
Numeric and Verbal Labelsp. 76
Labels for Response Categoriesp. 77
Labels and the Purpose of the Scalep. 77
Labels for Two Endpoints That Mean the Opposite of Each Otherp. 79
Positive Integers for Numeric Labelsp. 80
The Effect of Bias and Scale Extremesp. 80
Labels to Reflect Equal Intervals along a Continuump. 81
Order of Response Scales: Negative to Positivep. 82
Response Options in a Logical Orderp. 83
The Questionable Middle Positionp. 83
Even Number of Response Categories to Avoid Neutral Responsesp. 83
Odd Number of Response Categories for Quality or to Support the Status Quop. 84
Moderating Options When Using a Middle Optionp. 85
"Don't Know" and "No Opinion"p. 85
DK and Unfamiliar Optionsp. 86
Nonsubstantive Options Set Apart from the Other Response Optionsp. 86
Further Readingp. 88
Chapter Exercisesp. 89
6 Formatting and Reviewingp. 90
Introductionp. 90
Survey Format and Administration Methodp. 90
Costp. 92
Timeframep. 92
Number of Respondentsp. 92
Writing Demandsp. 92
Attractive Protocolp. 92
Follow-Up on a Responsep. 92
Anonymity/Confidentialityp. 93
Data Entryp. 93
Item Formats Specific to Administration Methodsp. 93
Equal Spacing of the Response Options on Print and Web Surveysp. 93
Each Item on Its Own Screen; Computer-Based Surveysp. 95
Radio Buttons for Responding on Web-Based Surveysp. 95
Horizontally Positioning Response Scales on Print and Web Surveysp. 95
Color and the Continuum of the Response Scalep. 95
Complete Reviews and a Pilot of the Survey Scalep. 96
Subject Matter Expert Reviewp. 96
Survey Methodologist Reviewp. 96
Translator Reviewp. 96
Editorial Reviewp. 96
Bias Reviewp. 97
Conducting a Pilot Testp. 97
Further Readingp. 98
Chapter Exercisesp. 98
7 Analysis of Survey Scale Datap. 99
Introductionp. 99
Levels of Measurementp. 100
Nominal Datap. 100
Ordinal Datap. 101
Interval Datap. 102
Ratio Datap. 102
Frequenciesp. 103
Measures of Central Tendencyp. 104
Modep. 104
Medianp. 105
Meanp. 105
Measures of Variabilityp. 106
Rangep. 106
Variancep. 106
Standard Deviationp. 107
Measures of Associationp. 108
Scatterplotsp. 109
Pearson Correlationp. 113
Spearman's Rhop. 113
Obtaining Descriptive Statisticsp. 113
Item Statisticsp. 113
Inter-Item Correlationsp. 116
Further Readingp. 117
Chapter Exercisesp. 118
Investigating Scale Qualityp. 120
Introductionp. 120
Coverage Errorp. 120
Sampling Errorp. 120
Nonresponse Errorp. 121
Measurement Errorp. 121
Field Testingp. 122
Response Distributions; Item Qualityp. 122
Frequenciesp. 122
Mean and Standard Deviationp. 124
Total Scorep. 125
Corrected Item-Total Correlationp. 126
Analyses by Groupp. 127
Analyses for Knowledge Itemsp. 127
Investigating Reliabilityp. 127
Internal Consistency Estimates of Reliabilityp. 128
Coefficient of Stabilityp. 129
Parallel Forms Reliability Estimatesp. 130
Evaluating Reliability Estimatesp. 130
Investigating Validityp. 131
Forms of Validity Evidencep. 131
Further Readingp. 141
Chapter Exercisesp. 142
8 Factor Analysisp. 143
Introductionp. 143
General Purposes and Processes Associated with Factor-Analytic Proceduresp. 146
Testing Assumptionsp. 146
Dimensionalityp. 147
Unidimensionalityp. 147
Multidimensionalityp. 148
Extraction: Principal Axis Factoringp. 149
Determining the Number of Factors (Model Selection)p. 150
Eigenvaluesp. 150
Scree Plotp. 152
Parallel Analysisp. 153
Reproduced Residual Matrixp. 154
Factor Loadingsp. 154
Rotationp. 157
How to Interpret Factor Solutionsp. 162
Calculating Factor Scoresp. 163
Sample Sizep. 164
Steps after EFAp. 165
How to Obtain an EFA Modelp. 165
Further Readingp. 168
Chapter Exercisesp. 169
9 Documenting the Development of the Survey Scalep. 171
Introductionp. 171
Determining the Need for a Data Displayp. 172
Developing Tablesp. 174
Table Structurep. 175
Organization of the Tablep. 176
Emphasis on the Most Important Patternp. 176
Placement of the Columnsp. 176
Use of Spacep. 177
Information to Include in a Tablep. 177
Consistent Format of Comparable Tablesp. 177
Table Datap. 178
Presentation of Data in Columnsp. 178
The Order of Statisticsp. 180
Column and Row Overall Statisticsp. 180
Rounding to Two Place Valuesp. 180
Reporting Statistics for Negatively Worded Itemsp. 181
Developing Graphsp. 181
Structure of a Graphp. 182
Choice of a Bar Graph or a Line Graphp. 182
x-Axis and y-Axis Labelsp. 183
Vertical and Horizontal Values for the Scale Axesp. 183
Need for Gridlinesp. 184
Legendsp. 184
Number of Bars and Linesp. 186
Shadingp. 186
Graphs to Avoidp. 186
Organization of Data in a Graphp. 187
Ordering Bars and Lines to Highlight Important Patternsp. 187
Location of Statisticsp. 188
Narrative about Table or Graphp. 188
Concluding Thoughtsp. 189
Further Readingp. 189
Chapter Exercisesp. 190
Appendix. Analysis of Data: Inferential Statisticsp. 193
Introductionp. 193
Samplingp. 194
Inferential Statisticsp. 196
Hypothesis Testingp. 196
Confidence Intervalsp. 198
Effect Sizep. 199
Inferential Proceduresp. 199
One-Sample f-Testp. 200
Dependent-Samples f-Testp. 205
Independent-Samples f-Testp. 208
One-Way Analysis of Variancep. 212
Nonparametric Inferential Statisticsp. 216
Mann-Whitney U Testp. 216
Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variancep. 219
Further Readingp. 222
Appendix Exercisesp. 223
Glossary of Key Termsp. 225
Sample Solutions to Chapter Exercisesp. 231
Referencesp. 243
Author Indexp. 255
Subject Indexp. 259
About the Authorsp. 269